𝐊𝐚𝐲𝐬𝐞𝐫–𝐅𝐥𝐞𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐡𝐞𝐫 𝐨𝐫 𝐊𝐅 𝐫𝐢𝐧𝐠𝐬 are caused by deposition of excess copper on the inner surface of the cornea in the Descemet membrane extending to the trabecular meshwork. They are usually bilateral. These rings are seen in most of the patients with neurologic involvement from WILSON DISEASE. However they are not specific to Wilson disease alone, they are also seen in other chronic cholestatic disorders such as primary biliary cholangitis, chil
CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION (ISCHEMIC in the first picture, NON-ISCHEMIC in the second picture) CRVO occurs due to the occlusion of the central retinal vein at or posterior to the lamina cribrosa. It causes painless unilateral loss of vision. Pathogenesis : VIRCHOW’S TRIAD : Vessel damage, Stasis and Hypercoagulability. The central retinal vein and artery share a common adventitial sheath at arteriovenous crossings posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Atheroscleo
VOGT’S STRIAE IN KERATOCONUS Vogt's striae are vertical stress lines in the posterior stroma and Descemet's membrane found in patients with keratoconus. They occur due to mechanical stresses on collagen lamellae radiating from the cone apex. The lines are parallel to the axis of the cone. The striae DISAPPEAR with external pressure to the globe. Image from Rajan Eye Care Hospital #ophthalmology #ophthal #ophthalmobytes #cornea #keratoconus
SHIELD ULCER Severe forms of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis can present with corneal manifestations which start as punctate epithelial erosions followed by macro erosions which coalesce into shield ulcers They are characteristically present in the superior cornea (suggestive of a mechanical cause due to the large papillae) and can be sight threatening. Simple scraping of base and margins of the ulcer with removal of the inflammatory plaque like material will promote re
Vernal Conjunctivitis comes under the spectrum of allergic conjunctivitis affecting young males who present with severe itching, photophobia and a characteristic ropy discharge.
Palpebral: Flat topped papillae in the upper tarsal conjunctiva arranged in a cobblestone pattern (as seen in the picture)
Bulbar: Dusky red triangular congestion of bulbar conjunctiva in palpebral area, Thickening and opacification of the limbal conjunctiva with gelatinous limbal papillae